What is otolaryngology?

Otolaryngology, or ENT, is the medical specialty devoted to ailments and anomalies of the “ENT sphere”, namely:

  • the ear (outer, middle and inner);
  • nose and sinuses;
  • throat and neck (mouth, tongue, larynx, trachea);
  • the salivary glands.

The ENT is therefore interested in hearing, voice, breathing, smell and taste, balance, and facial aesthetics (3). It includes cervico-facial surgery.

Many conditions and abnormalities can be managed by an otolaryngologist, since all organs of the ENT sphere can be affected by:

  • birth defects;
  • tumors;
  • infections or inflammations;
  • trauma or injury;
  • degeneration (especially deafness);
  • paralysis (facial, laryngeal);
  • but also, indications for plastic and aesthetic surgery of the face and neck.

When to consult an ENT?

The otolaryngologist (or otolaryngologist) is involved in the treatment of many diseases. Here is a non-exhaustive list of problems that can be taken care of in ENT:

  • in the mouth:
    • removal (excision) of tonsils, adenoid adenoids;
    • salivary gland tumors or infections;
    • tumors of the mouth, tongue.
  • on the nose:
  • chronic nasal congestion;
  • Ikwo ụra et ụra apnea ;
  • sinusitis ;
  • rhinoplasty (operation to “redo” the nose);
  • smell disturbances.
  • nti nti repeat ;
  • hearing loss or deafness;
  • nti mgbu (ntị mgbu);
  • tinnitus ;
  • balance disturbances, dizziness.
  • voice pathologies;
  • stridor (noise when breathing);
  • thyroid disorders (in collaboration with an endocrinologist);
  • reflux gastro-laryngé ;
  • laryngeal cancers, cervical masses
  • at the level of the ears:
  • in the throat:
More na isiokwu:  Ihe icheta mgbe ị na-ahọrọ kiwi

Although pathologies in the ENT sphere can affect everyone, there are certain recognized risk factors, among others:

  • ise anwụrụ;
  • ị alcoholụbiga mmanya ókè;
  • overweight or obesity (snoring, apnea…);
  • young age: children are more prone to ear infections and other ENT infections than adults.

What does ENT do?

To arrive at a diagnosis and identify the origin of the disorders, the otolaryngologist:

  • questions his patient to find out the nature of the disorders, their date of onset and their mode of triggering, the degree of discomfort felt;
  • performs a clinical examination of the organs in question, using instruments suitable for the nose, ears or throat (spatulas, otoscope, etc.);
  • may have recourse to additional examinations (radiography, for example).

Depending on the problem and the treatment to be provided, the otolaryngologist may use:

  • to various drugs;
  • at fibroscopies or endoscopies, to visualize the interior of the respiratory tract for example;
  • surgical interventions (ENT is a surgical specialty), whether they are tumor, restorative or reconstructive interventions;
  • prostheses or implants;
  • to rehabilitation.

What are the risks during an ENT consultation?

The consultation with an otolaryngologist does not involve any particular risks for the patient.

How to become an ENT?

Become an ENT in France

To become an otolaryngologist, the student must obtain a diploma of specialized studies (DES) in ENT and head and neck surgery:

  • he must first follow, after his baccalaureate, a common first year in health studies. Note that an average of less than 20% of students manage to cross this milestone;
  • at the end of the 6th year, students take the national classifying tests to enter the boarding school. Depending on their classification, they will be able to choose their specialty and their place of practice. The otolaryngology internship lasts 5 years (10 semesters, including 6 in ENT and head and neck surgery and 4 in another specialty, including at least 2 in surgery).
More na isiokwu:  Enwere mmechi, mana enweghị mkpughe - ihe ị ga -eme (cervix, akpanwa)

Finally, to be able to practice as a pediatrician and hold the title of doctor, the student must also defend a research thesis.

Become an ENT in Quebec

 After college studies, the student must complete a doctorate in medicine. This first stage lasts 1 or 4 years (with or without a preparatory year for medicine for students admitted with college or university training deemed insufficient in basic biological sciences). Then, the student will have to specialize by following a residency in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery (5 years). 

Kwadebe ọbịbịa gị

Before going to the appointment with an ENT, it is important to take any imaging or biology exams already carried out.

It is important to note the characteristics of the pain (duration, onset, frequency, etc.), to inquire about your family history and to bring the various prescriptions.


To find an ENT doctor:

  • in Quebec, you can consult the website of the Association d’oto-rhino-laryngologie et deirurgie cervico-faciale du Quebec4, which offers a directory of their members.
  • in France, via the website of the Ordre des médecinsâ ?? µ or the Syndicat national des médecins specialized in ENT and cervico-facial surgery6, which offers a directory.

The consultation with the otolaryngologist is covered by the Health Insurance (France) or the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec.

Nkume a-aza